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Friday, April 11, 2014


Information Systems Life Cycle can be divided into three broad categories. 

The remaining steps in the systems development process translate the solution specifications established during systems analysis and design into a fully operational information system. These concluding steps consist of programming, testing, conversion, and production and maintenance. 

1. Programming

The process of translating design specifications into software for the computer constitutes a smaller portion of the systems development cycle than design and perhaps the testing activities. But it here, in providing the actual instructions for the machine, that the heart of the system takes shape. During the programming stage, system specifications that were prepared during the design stage are translated into program code. On the basis of detailed design documents for files, transaction and report layouts, and other design details, specifications for each program in the system are prepared. 

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Some systems development projects assign programming tasks to specialists whose work consists exclusively of coding programs. Other projects prefer programmer/ analysts who both design and program functions. Since large systems entail many programs with thousands – even hundreds of thousands – of lines of code, programming teams are frequently used. Moreover, even if an entire system can be programmed by a single individual, the quality of the software will be higher if it is subject to group review. 



Information Systems Life Cycle can be divided into three broad categories. 


While systems analysis describes what a system should do to meet information requirements, systems design shows how the system will fulfil this objective. The design of an information system is the overall plan or model for that system. Like the blueprint of a building or house, it consists of all the specifications that give the system its form and structure. Information systems design is an exacting and creative task demanding imagination, sensitivity to detail, and expert skills.  

Systems design has three objectives. First, the systems designer is responsible for considering alternative technology configurations for carrying out and developing the system as described by the analyst. This may involve analyses of the performance of different pieces of hardware and software, security capabilities of systems, network alternatives, and the portability or changeability of systems hardware.

Second, designers are responsible for the management and control of the technical realization of systems. Detailed programming specifications, coding of data, documentation, designers are responsible for the actual procurement of the hardware, consultants, and software needed by the system.

Third, the systems designer details the system specifications that will deliver the functions identified during systems analysis. These specifications should address all of the managerial, organizational, and technological components of the system solution. 

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Logical and Physical Design



Information Systems Life Cycle can be divided into three broad categories. 

Systems Analysis is the analysis of the problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system. It consists of defining the problem, identifying its causes, specifying the solution, and identifying the information requirements that must be met by a system solution.  

The key to building any large information system is a thorough understanding of the existing organization and system. Thus, the systems analyst creates a road map of the existing organization and systems, identifying the primary owners and users of data in the organization. These stakeholders have a direct interest in the information affected by the new system. In addition to these organizational aspects, the analyst also briefly describes the existing hardware and software that serve the organization. I Need Money Now tips on how to make money fast  

From this organizational analysis, the systems analyst details the problems of existing systems. By examining documents, work papers, and procedures; observing system operations; and interviewing key users of the systems, the analyst can identify the problem are and objectives to be achieved by a solution. Often the solution requires buildings a new information system or improving an existing one.


In addition to suggesting a solution, systems analysis involves a feasibility study to determine whether that solution is feasible, or achievable, given the organization’s resources and constraints. Three major areas of feasibility must be addressed:


Thursday, April 10, 2014


The Systems Life Cycle is the oldest method for building information systems and is still used today for complex medium or large systems projects. This methodology assumes that an information system has a life cycle similar to that of any living organism, with a beginning, middle, and an end. The life cycle for information system has six stages: project definition, systems study, design, programming, installation, and post-implementation. Each stage consists of basic activities that must be performed before the next stage can begin. 

The life cycle methodology is a very formal approach to building systems. It partitions the systems development process into distinct stages and develops an information system sequentially, stage by stage. The life cycle methodology also has a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists. Technical specialists such as systems analysts and programmers are responsible for much of the systems analysis, design, and implementation work; end users are limited to providing information requirements and reviewing the work of the technical staff. Formal sign-offs or agreements between and users and technical specialists are required as each stage is completed.  
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Product or output of each stage of the life cycle that is the basis for such sign-offs. The project definition stage results in a proposal for the development of a new system. The systems study stage provides a detailed systems proposal report outlining alternative solutions and establishing the feasibility of proposed solutions. The design stage results in a report on the design specifications for the system solution that is selected. The programming stage results in actual software code for the system. The installation stage outputs the results of tests to assess the performance of the system. The post-implementation stage concludes with a post-implementation audit to measure the extent to which the new system has met its original objectives. We now describe the stages of the life cycle in detail. 



Sunday, April 6, 2014


The goal of the Traditional System Life Cycle is to keep the project under control and assure that the information system produced, satisfies the requirements. The traditional system life cycle divides the project into a series of steps, each of which has distinct deliverables, such as documents or computer programs. This is known as the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The deliverables are related because each subsequent step builds on the conclusions of previous steps. Some deliverables are oriented toward the technical staff, whereas others are directed toward or produced by users and mangers. The latter ensure that users and their management are included in the system development process.                                

Although there is general agreement about what needs to be done in the traditional system life cycle, different authors name individual steps and deliverables differently. Many versions of the traditional system life cycle emphasize the building or software and de-emphasize what happens in the organization before and after software development. Because this article is directed at business professionals, its version of the traditional system life cycle emphasizes implementation and operation in the organization in addition to software development. 

The Four Phases of Traditional System Life Cycle are (Visit Table-I ):

1.   Initiation
2.   Development
3.   Implementation
4.   Operation and Maintenance 

Table-I : Phases and Steps of Traditional System Life Cycle

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Tuesday, April 1, 2014


The emergence of a global economy has stimulated worldwide interest in achieving quality. Companies can no longer be satisfied with producing goods and services that compete only with goods produced within their own country. Consumers can now select from a broad range of products and services produced anywhere in the world. Before examining how information systems can contribute to quality throughout the organization, we must first define the term quality. 

Traditional definitions for quality have focused upon the conformance to specifications (or the absence of variation from those specifications). With this definition, a producer can easily measure the quality of its products. Achieving quality under this definition requires three steps from the manufacturer: First, establish product specifications. Second, measure products as they are produced to determine whether or not they achieve the standards established in the specifications. Third, alter the manufacturing process whenever necessary to bring the products up to standard.  מצא מנעולן שרות 24 שעות

However, achieving quality is not quite that simple and direct. The definition of quality has been changing and broadening in recent years. Defining quality as conformances to specifications view it from a producer’s perspective only. Customers have a different perspective, being more concerned with value for their Rupees. They normally apply three criteria. First, customers are concerned with the quality of the physical product. They want to know if the product is durable, how safe it is, its reliability, its ease of use and installation, its stylishness, and how well the producer supports the product. Second, customers are concerned with the quality of service, by which they mean the accuracy and truthfulness of the advertising, the timeliness and accuracy of the billing process, responsiveness to warranties (implied as well as specified), and ongoing product support. Finally, customer concepts of quality include the psychological aspects: how well do the sales and support staff know their products, the courtesy and sensitivity of the staff, and even their neatness, the reputation of the product. For companies to compete globally, they need to include a customer perspective in any definition of quality. 



If a firm does not want to use its own internal resources to build and operate information systems, it can hire an external organization that specializes in providing these services to do the work. The process of turning over an organization’s computer central operations, telecommunications networks, or applications development to external vendors of these services is called outsourcing.

Outsourcing information system is not a new phenomenon. Outsourcing options have existed since the dawn of data processing. As early as 1963, Petrot’s Electronic Data Systems (EDS) handled data processing services for Frito-Lay and Blue Cross. Activities such as software programming, operation of large computers, time-sharing and purchase of packaged software have to some extent been outsourced since the 1960s. 

Because information systems play such a large role in contemporary organizations, information technology now accounts for about half of most large firms’ capital expenditure. In firms where the cost of information systems function has risen rapidly, managers are seeking ways to control those costs and are treating information technology as a capital investment instead of an operating cost of the firm. One option for controlling these costs is to outsource. It creates ACORD forms and applications, tracks commissions, provides loss runs, communicates with insureds, saves all of your agency document, allows your customers to access their policy information and issue certificates.

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