Define competency mapping. Briefly discuss the steps involved in competency mapping and its limitations. Explain the methods of competency mapping being followed in any organization familiar with and its effects.
Competency mapping is a process to identify key competencies for an organization and / or job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization . A competency is defined as behavior rather than skill or ability. Competency approach to a job involves competency mapping.
The steps involved in competency mapping is presented below:
a) Conduct a job analysis by taking incumbents to complete a Position Information Questionnaire (PIQ). This can be provided for incumbents to complete or used as a basis for conducting one-on-one interviews using the PIQ as a guide. The primary goals is to gather from incumbents what they feel are the key behavior necessary to perform their respective jobs.
b) Using the results of job analysis, a competency based job description is developed.
c) With a competency based job description, mapping the competencies can be done. The competencies of the respective job description become factor for assessment on the performance evaluation. Using competencies will help to perform more objective evaluations based on displayed or not displayed behavior.
d) Taking the competency mapping one step further, one can use the results of one’s evaluation to identify in what competencies individuals need additional development or training. This will help in focusing on training needs required to achieve the goals of the position and company and help the employees develop toward the ultimate success of the organization.
Improved work performance.
Training that is focused on organizational objectives.
Employee know up front what is expected of them.
Employees are empowered to become partners in their own performance development
Competency approach to job analysis : Competency is a skill requires knowledge, experience, attitude, and feed back. Performance assessment criteria clearly define the acceptance level of competency in each skill is required to perform the job. The individual’s level of competency in each skill is measured against a performance standard established by the organization.
The competency based job analysis involved the following steps :
- Identification of major job functions.
- Identification of skills performed within each of the major job functions
- Generation of several drafts to be reviewed by employers and employees and modified to accurately reflect the skills performed on the job.
- Development of occupational analysis chart. The chart is a two dimensional spread sheet chart displaying the major job functions and skills : and
- Identification of performance standards for each skill using a competency-based rating scale which describe various levels of performance.
It is not easy to identify all the competencies required to fulfill the job requirement. However, a number of methods and approaches have been developed and successfully tried out in our organization. These methods have helped managers to a large extent, to identify and reinforce and/or develop these competencies both for the growth of the individual and the growth of our organization.
Measure competency mapping methods as followed by Most Organisations :
A. Assessment Center.
B. Critical Incidents Technique
C. Interview Techniques
E. Psychometric Test
Our organization ECO-CARE AND AWARE, a no-profit support service / consultancy organization to the development sector following first four type of competency mapping methods.
A. ASSESSMENT CENTRE
Assessment center is a mechanism to identify the potential for growth. It is a procedure (not location) that uses a variety of techniques to evaluate employees for manpower purpose and decisions. An essential feature of the assessment centre as used by our organization is the use of situational test to observe specific job behavior. Since it is with reference to a job, elements related to the job are simulated through a variety of tests. The assessors observe the behavior and make independent evaluation of what they have observed, which results in identifying strengths and weaknesses of the attributes being studied.
Our organization follow the elements as identified by the International Personnel Management Association (IPMA) for a process to be considered as assessment centre.
a) A job analysis of relevant behavior to determine attributes, skills etc. for effective job performance and what should be evaluated by assessment center.
Data thus generated can become extremely useful in identifying employees with potential for growth. Following are the some benefits of our assessment center.
Our organization’s assessment center comprises a number of exercises or simulation which have been designed to replicate the task and demands of the jobs and to assess the strength and weakness & potential of the employees.
1. Group Discussion : In this candidates are brought together as a committee or Project team with one or a number of items to make a recommendation on. Candidates may be assigned a specific roles to play in the group or it may be structured in such a way that all the candidates have the same basic information. Group discussions allow them to exchange information and ideas and give them the experience of working in a team. In the work place, discussions enable management to draw on the ideas and expertise of staff, and to acknowledge the staff as valued members of a team.
Some advantage of group discussion are :
Ideas can be generated
Ideas can be shared
Ideas can be tried out.
Ideas can be responded to by others.
When the dynamics are right, groups provide a supportive and nurturing environment for academic and professional endevour.
Group discussion skill have many professional application.
Working in group is fun.
a) Positive Task Roles
b) Positive Maintenance Roles
2. In Tray : This type of exercise are normally undertaken by the candidates individually. The materials comprise of a bundle of correspondence and the candidate is placed in the role of somebody, generally, which assumed a new position or replaced their predecessor at short notice and has been asked to deal with their accumulated correspondence
3. Interview Simulation / Role Plays : In these exercise candidates meet individually with a role player or resource person. Their brief is either to gather information to form a view and make a decision, or alternatively to engage in a discussion with the resource person to come to a resolution on an aspect or issue of dispute. Typically our HR team allow the candidate a 15-30 minutes time to prepare for such a meeting and will be given a short, general brief on the conduct of the meeting itself, consideration are also be given to preparatory notes.
4. Case Studies / Analysis Exercises : In this type of exercise the candidate is presented with the task of making about a decision about a particular business case. They are provided with a large amount of factual information which is generally ambiguous and , in some cases contradictory. Candidates generally work independently on such an exercise and their recommendation or decision is usually to be communicated in the form of brief written report and / or a presentation made to our assessors.
B. CRITICAL INCIDENTS TECHNIQUE
It is difficult to define critical incident except to say that it can contribute to growth and decay of a system. Perhaps one way to understand the concept would be to examine what is does. Despite numerous variations in procedures for gathering and analyzing critical incidents, researchers and practitioners agree that critical incidents techniques can be described as a set of procedures for systematically identifying the behavior that contribute success or failure of individual or organization in specific situation. First of all, a list of good and bad on the job behavior is prepared for each job. A few judges are asked to rate how good and how bad is good and bad behavior, respectively. Based on these rating a check-list of good and bad behavior is prepared.
The next task is to train our supervisor in taking notes on critical incidents or outstanding examples of success or failure of the subordinates in meeting the job requirements. The incidents are to be immediately noted down by the supervisor as he observes them. Very often the employee concerned is also involved in discussion with his supervisor before the incidents are recorded, particularly when an unfavorable incidents is being recorded, thus facilitating the employee to come out with his side of the story.
The objective of immediately recording the critical incidents is to improve the supervisor’s ability as an observer and also to reduce the common tendency to rely on recall and hence attendant distortions in the incidents. Thus a balance sheet for each employee is generated which can be used at the end of the year to see how well the employee has performed. Besides being objective a definite objective of this technique is that it identifies areas where counseling may be useful.
C. INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES
Like any other organization our organization uses interview in some shape or form as a part of competency mapping. The interview consists of interaction between interviewer and applicant. We handle it carefully to make it a powerful technique in achieving accurate information and getting access to material otherwise unavailable. Biasness and restriction or distortion of flow of information avoided to our best while interviewing.
Followings careful steps are taken in our organization during and after the interview:
a) Before the actual interview begins, the critical areas in which the questions will be asked first identified for judging ability and skills. It is advisable to write down these critical areas, define them with examples and form a scale to rate the responses. If there is more than one interviewer, some practice and mock interviews will help calibrate variation in individual’s interviewer’s rating.
Questionnaires are written list of questions that users fill out questionnaires and return. We begin by formulating questions about our services based on the type of information we want to know. The questionnaire sources below below provide more information on how we design questions. The techniques are used at various stages of development, depending on the questions that are asked in the questionnaires.
a) Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ) : They examine some of the competencies to work performance and have five sections : Background, Contacts with people, Decision making, Physical and Mechanical Activities, and work setting.
Each scale has several levels that are anchored with specific behavioral statements and illustrative tasks and are used to collect information.
c) Multipurpose Occupational System Analysis Inventory (MOSAIC): In this method each job analysis inventory collects data from the office of personnel management system through a variety of descriptors.- mainly Tasks and Competencies.
1) Information input (where and how the workers get information),
2) Mental Processes ( reasoning and other processes that the workers use )
3) Work Output (Physical activities and tools used on the job)
4) Relationship with other person and
5) Job Context (the physical and social context of work)
f) Work Profile System (WPS) : It is designed to help employers accomplish human resources functions. The competency approach is designed to yield report targeted towards various human resources functions such as individual development planning, employee selection, and job description.
By : Abhishek Kumar Sadhu